last revised 10/05/04
- Where is the artillery shell that hit the Trostle
- It may possibly be the shell that is mortared into the peak
of the small outbuilding next to the Trostle house. It was the only one found with red
brick dust on it. It's hard to see, but can be noticed from the Park road.
- The famous Jennie Wade house - Is that where she
- No. At the time of the battle, Jennie's residence was actually the house at 51
Breckenridge Street. She was born at 242-246 Baltimore Street. The McClellan home, in
which she was shot, was where her sister lived.
- Why did an Act of Congress affect the Jennie Wade
- Congress passed an Act which allowed the flag at her grave
to fly day and night. Only the graves of 2 women have such a distinction. The other is
- What was the first monument erected on the
- Shortly after the battle, several markers were placed on the
field. Some were made of wood or metal, and are since long gone. The first official
monument and the first regimental monument is the one erected in 1879 to the 2nd
Massachusetts Infantry near Spangler's Spring. It marks the spot where their assault
through Spangler's meadow began. Easily missed, it is very small and sits on top of a
- What was hidden by the sculptor in the monument to
the 78th and 102nd New York Infantry?
- Look closely at the front of the monument in the carved
boulders below the soldier, and you will distinctly see the carving of a lion's head and
paw. This is the famous monument damaged by vandals years ago with the soldier's musket
- What is special about the cannon barrels beneath the
Gen. John Buford statue on McPherson Ridge?
These were all cannons used by John Calef's Battery.
The barrel facing down the Chambersburg Pike in the direction of the Confederate attack is
serial number 233, tracked down by Calef after the war. It fired the first Union artillery
shot of the Battle under Buford's personal direction. This is stated on a small plaque on
- Are the cannon carriages on the battlefield
No, they are metal reproductions. The originals were
made of wood and would weather too quickly.
- On the back of the monument of the 8th Illinois
Cavalry is the name "David Diffenbaugh." Who was he?
- He was the only man in the unit killed at Gettysburg.
- What else is important about the 8th Illinois
- Unlike other monuments, it sits between the flank markers of
another unit - the 8th New York Cavalry's. The 8th New York's formerly stood where the
Illinois monument now stands, but had to be relocated since the Illinois unit occupied
this spot first during the battle. However, the flank markers of the 8th New York were
- Near the Visitor's Center is a statue of Albert
Woolson, the last surviving Civil War soldier of the Union Army. What unit did he fight in
- Woolson was not in the battle of Gettysburg. It was
determined to be fitting to erect his monument here. He is shown sitting, looking out in
the direction of Pickett's Charge.
- During the Civil War, many artillerymen would name
their cannons. Sometimes the name would be carved into the cannon itself. Can any of these
names be seen in the cannon on the field and where?
- Look at the muzzle of a cannon posted in the 9th
Massachusetts battery. On it is carved the name "Cora."
- What is unusual about the Napoleon cannons in the
Ames Battery Memorial?
- They are actually two 6-pounders that have been altered and
drilled out at the muzzle to look like Napoleons.
- What is unusual about the carving of the soldier's
cartridge box on the monument to the 29th Ohio Infantry?
- For an unknown reason, the sculptor carved the "S"
in "US" backwards on the plate and it was never corrected.
- Does the Soldier's National Monument in the Cemetary
denote the actual spot where Lincoln delivered his famous Address?
- Probably not. Through careful research of period
photographs, many historians now believe that the speaker's platform was actually near a
small mausoleum on the other side of the metal fence in Evergreen Cemetary.
- What is unusual about one of the cannons posted in
Battery H, 1st US Artillery?
- One of the barrels is mounted upside down. In addition, it
has a large dent in the side and appears to have been hit by Confederate artillery fire.
- Sergeant Ben Crippen, the famous color-bearer
memorialized on the monument of the 143rd PA infantry, shaking his fist at the advancing
Confederates, was killed retreating with the unit's flag. Where is he buried?
- Unfortunately, his body had to be left behind Confederate
lines after the Union retreated through the town. Crippen is likely one of the
"unknowns" buried in the National Cemetary.
- What soldier has two large bronze statues of him at
- Union Major General John F. Reynolds. An equestrian statue
is on McPherson Ridge, and a portrait statue is in the National Cemetary.
- What small sculpture is included on the 11th PA
infantry monument and is easily missed?
- There is a sculpture of a small dog, curled up as if sleeping. This was Sallie, the
regiment's mascot. Sallie was given to the regiment as a puppy, and grew up with the men,
participating in the battles. During the fighting, Sallie would take a position at the end
of the line of battle, barking as loud as she could at the enemy. At Gettysburg, Sallie
was with the regiment during the fighting on the First. As they retreated through the
town, Sallie got separated from the unit. After the Confederate retreat, a member of
another unit found Sallie amidst the wounded, dying, and dead of her unit, lying down and
maintaining silent vigil for the entire battle. She was weak but alive and was returned to
her unit. Recovering, Sallie resumed her place with the unit and served the rest of the
war. On February 6, 1865 at the battle of Hatcher's Run in Virginia, Sallie was shot
through the head and killed. Despite heavy Confederate firing, several men of the unit
stopped to bury her on the field. Years later when designing this monument at Gettysburg,
the men unanimously decided it fitting to memorialize their little comrade with her own
- Who fired first the first shot of the battle on July
- Most likely Lt. Marcellus Jones of the 8th Illinois Cavalry,
in an advance party of their pickets on Knoxlyn Ridge, 4 miles west of Gettysburg on the
Chambersburg Pike. At about 7:30 am, soldier George Heim raised his rifle to fire at a
mounted Confederate officer down the road, when Jones asked for Sgt. Levi Shaffer's
carbine and the honor of the first shot. Jones fired but missed. A small marker was placed
on private ground at the spot by Jones and his comrades in 1886 and exists today.
- Who shot Union General John F. Reynolds?
- There have been many theories, the most popular that of a
Confederate sharpshooter in a tree, but all evidence points to an unnamed and unknown
infantryman in Archer's Brigade of Heth's Division. All credits claimed by others have
been unprovable and deemed unlikely, so we will probably never know. It's probable that
the soldier never even knew he had shot Reynolds, or didn't live to make his claim.
- The Virginia State Monument has a statue of General
Robert E. Lee astride his favorite horse Traveller at the top. What did the sculptor use
as a model for the horse?
- Sculptor Frederick Sievers travelled to Washington and Lee
University in Virginia to study the skeleton of Traveller on display there. A live horse,
matching the shape and size of Traveller was then used as the actual model.
- The beautiful Louisiana State Memorial is a
sculpture of a female figure above a dead artilleryman. Who is the female?
- The statue represents "The Spirit of the
Confederacy." It is often said that it also represents St. Barbara, the patron-saint
- The Alabama State Memorial has three beautifully
sculpted figures. What do they represent?
- The central figure represents the Spirit of Alabama. The two
soldiers on either side represent the "Spirit" and "Determination" of
all Alabama soldiers. The central figure comforts the wounded soldier on the left as she
urges the soldier on the right into battle and points the way for him. An ammunition pouch
is being passed to the soldier continuing the fight.
- What is the significance of the boulder on which the
monument to the 20th Maine stands on Vincent's Spur?
- It is said to be the boulder on which color-bearer Sgt.
Andrew Tozier stood, clutching the flag to his chest as he fired a rifle at the advancing
- Who designed the famous "Castle" monument
to the 44th New York Infantry (and two companies of the 12th New York) on Little Round
- General Daniel Butterfield, the original brigade commander
of the 44th. Interestingly, the castle's measurements have special significance. The tower
is 44 feet high to represent the 44th, while the interior chamber is laid out to be 12
feet square to honor the 12th Infantry.
- The statue of General Gouvernor K. Warren on Little
Round Top is one of the most famous in the world. What is unique about the way it's
construction was funded?
- The fact that all funds were privately raised. The Veteran's
Association of his first command, the 5th New York Infantry, sent printed appeals to
survivors and other interested parties. The $5000 cost of the monument was easily and
- There is great detail in the monument to the 96th PA
Infantry, a soldier prone on the ground. What interesting detail is included on it?
- If you were to climb onto the statue to look at the top of
the ground on which the soldier lays, you would notice that the sculptor chose to include
a "footprint" in the "mud" to the left of the soldier's foot.
- The monument to the 4th Michigan Infantry depicts a
soldier clutching the flag of the regiment. Who was he?
- An inscription on the monument states that it merely shows "a spirited life-sized
representation of a color bearer in action." In reality, it is Colonel Harrison H.
Jeffords, who was shot and bayoneted multiple times by Confederates seizing his flag. As
he saw his flag taken from it's colorbearer, he rushed in with his sword, slashing at the
Confederates. The Confederates killed him and took the flag back. Soldiers of the 4th then
rushed in and regained the flag after a desperate bloody struggle. They carried it back
along with Jefford's lifeless body.
- Are any Confederate soldiers depicted on Union
- Yes. The monument of the 66th New York shows, on its back
and hardly ever seen, a bronze plaque showing a Union and Confederate soldier shaking
hands. The sculpture is titled "Peace and Unity."
- The 28th Massachussetts Infantry of the Irish
Brigade monument contains a Gaelic slogan. What is it and what does it mean?
- "Faugh A Ballaugh." Roughly translated, it means
"Clear the Way" and was the rallying cry of many Irish units.
- What monument contains a sculpture of a figure
in a uniform not worn or seen in the battle?
- That of the 73rd New York Infantry (2nd Fire Zouaves). There
are two large figures, one of a soldier in the Zouave uniform, and another dressed as a
New York volunteer fireman. The fireman holds his calling horn in hand. This represents
the dual identity of this unit's soldiers, which was raised from volunteer firemen in New
- The monument of the 20th Massachussetts
Infantry consists of a huge boulder not from the area. Where did it come from?
- It's a large conglomerate boulder that prominently stood in
a popular playground in Roxbury, Mass., where many of the unit's soldiers played as
children. When designing a monument, it was decided to transport this rock to Gettysburg
for the memorial. The descriptive bronze tablet on its base was the gift of the daughter
of Colonel Paul J. Revere of the unit, killed on July 2. Revere was the grandson of the
famous Revolutionary War patriot.
- What was the last monument placed under the
direction of the old Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association?
- The famous High Water Mark memorial at the Copse of Trees.
It was dedicated in 1892, and shortly thereafter all holdings of the GBMA were turned over
to the Federal Government to be included as part of the Gettysburg National Military Park.
- On the monument of the 106th PA Infantry are
forty carved trefoils, the 2nd Corps symbol. What else do they represent?
- The standard forty rounds of ammunition that the soldier
carried in his cartridge box. Incidentally, the three drums at the top of the memorial
form the trefoil as well, when viewed from the east and west.
- Does Kentucky have a State Monument at
- Yes, but most visitors don't know it, although nearly all
see it. Placed in 1975, it is the small monument in the National Cemetary with the bronze
plaques of Lincoln's handwritten address on it. Easily missed, only a small disk on the
front identifies the monument. Kentucky contributed soldiers to both the North and South
as a border state, and was the birthplace of both Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.
- What is of note about the huge New York State
Memorial in the National Cemetary?
- The face of the statue can't be seen in detail because of
it's height, but it is crying. It represents the state of New York, and stands weeping
over the New York graves. In one hand it holds a wreath to place over a grave.
- Who was the first Union soldier killed in the
- Unknown for sure, but it may have been Cyrus W. James, Co. G
of the 9th NY Cavalry. The Corporal was killed during a skirmish with Ewell's troops north
of Gettysburg. His death probably occured before the skirmishing west of Gettysburg, which
lays claim to the first shot fired (Lt. Marcellus Jones at 7:30 am). Jones' shot was the
first at the main body of the Confederate troops, but skirmishing had taken place north of
Gettysburg on the first morning before that time.
- Who was the first Confederate soldier killed
in the battle?
- Impossible to determine again, but possibly a skirmisher in
Ewell's Corps who was shot dead by Daniel Cornish of the 9th NY Cavalry, north of town.
- Where did General Buford and Reynolds meet - at the
Lutheran Seminary or on McPherson's Ridge?
- At the Seminary, according to Buford's signal officer, and
the staff of General Abner Doubleday. This has always been a controversy, but an
examination of the records and eye-witness accounts establishes the meeting at the
Seminary and not on the actual battle line.
- It is well known that Gen. George Pickett graduated
last in his West Point Class. What was Gen. James Longstreet's ranking?
- Longstreet graduated 3rd from the bottom in his Class of
- What's different about the Maryland Memorial?
- Unlike other State memorials at the Park, the Maryland Memorial isn't
focused on either side's fighting men. The two soldiers depicted are from opposing
sides but aren't ment to be easily distinguishable as to which side they fought for.
(There were many men from Maryland on both sides during the war.)
- How many Monuments and how many guns are there at the
Gettysburg Battlefield today?
- Over 850 monuments and 400 guns speckle the Gettysburg Battlefield